Pain that develops in or around one or both testicles is referred to as testicular pain. In certain cases, pain in one or both testicles originates elsewhere in the groin or abdomen, and the pain is felt in the testes.
There are various possible causes for testicular pain, from infections to trauma. Testicle pain or discomfort can occur even from a slight injury. When the testicle becomes inflamed, it might be due to a disease, injury, or general irritation inside the testicle, as well as from the support structure behind the testicle (epididymis).
It is possible that pain in the testicles can be a medical emergency.
Causes of Testicular Pain
Possible causes of testicular pain include:
Bruising, discomfort, and swelling can result from trauma to the testicles. A ruptured testicle or a hematocele can also occur. When blood accumulates around the testicle and presses against it, a hematocele develops, obstructing blood flow.
If a person has had a blow to the testicles and is feeling pain and swelling, they should seek medical help right away.
2. Testicular Torsion
Testicular torsion happens when a testicle rotates, twisting the spermatic cord that carries blood to the scrotum. A quick and often severe reduction in blood flow results in abrupt and often severe pain and swelling.
Testicular torsion is most commonly seen in males aged 12 to 18, however, it can happen at any age.
In most cases, immediate surgery is required for testicular torsion. Usually, a testicle can be preserved if it is treated quickly. The testicle may become injured and have to be removed if blood flow is cut off for too long.
Epididymitis is an inflammation of the coiled tube (epididymis) that stores and transports sperm at the rear of the testicle. Epididymitis can affect men of any age.
The most common cause of epididymitis is a bacterial infection, such as gonorrhea or chlamydia, which are sexually transmitted infections (STIs). A testicle can also become inflamed, a condition known as epididymo-orchitis.
When the tissue pushes through a weak section of the abdominal muscles, this is known as a hernia. Inguinal hernias are a form of hernia that can cause testicular pain and edema if they push into the scrotum.
While doctors may be able to decrease or push an inguinal hernia back into position, inguinal hernias can typically be pushed back into place on their own. If this doesn’t work, they can do surgery to fix the hernia.
5. Testicular Tumour
Although the symptoms of a testicular tumor may mimic various other disorders affecting men, including inguinal hernias and epididymitis, a testicular tumor is a separate condition. A doctor can perform an evaluation to determine whether the tumor or other underlying problem is present.
Other symptoms may include:
- a dull ache in the groin
- a lump in the testicle
- testicular swelling
When To See The Doctor
It is best to see a doctor if any of the following symptoms accompany testicular pain:
- discoloration of the testicles
- unusual, bloody, or cloudy discharge from the penis
- testicular swelling
- pain that gets worse over time
Anyone with symptoms of testicular torsion should seek emergency medical attention. Without treatment, any condition that affects blood flow could result in loss of the testicle or surrounding parts.