Home Symptoms 10 Causes of Pelvic Pain in Women

10 Causes of Pelvic Pain in Women

Men and women can suffer from pelvic pain and the cause may be an infection, internal organ abnormalities, or pain resulting from pelvic bones. Some patients who have pelvic pain also have pelvic symptoms that could be related to the reproductive system. Depending on the underlying cause, the treatment will vary.

Pelvic pain

Pelvic pain can be described as either dull or intense; constant or intermittent and in varying degrees. If you have pelvic pain, you may also have lower back pain, buttock discomfort, or thigh pain.

Pelvic discomfort can occur suddenly, severely, and for a short time (acute) or over time (chronic). Chronic pelvic pain is defined as persistent or intermittent pelvic pain that lasts for six months or longer.

Common Causes of Pelvic Pain in Women

1. Menstrual Cramps

A major cause of pelvic discomfort in women is menstrual cramping and pain. Approximately 50% of menstruating women will have at least some degree of pain for one to two days per month.

The common time for menstrual discomfort to occur before a woman starts her period is right before, as the uterus contracts and rids itself of its lining. Even though the discomfort is akin to a muscle spasm or a jabbing pain, it’s completely normal.

Warming the skin with a heat pad may help alleviate the discomfort. In addition to prescribed drugs, such as ibuprofen (Advil) and naproxen (Aleve), over-the-counter treatments such as these may assist reduce pain. Analgesics can be recommended for women experiencing severe menstrual cramps.

2. Cystitis and Urinary Tract Infection

Bacterial cystitis occurs when a bacterial infection inflames the bladder. Bacteria that reside in the vagina, rectum, or skin can get to the bladder via the urethra. While cystitis exists only in the bladder, a UTI can occur anywhere in the urinary tract.

Many women have both problems. Cystitis and other UTIs are commonly treated with a short course of antibiotics.

3. Sexually Transmitted Infections

Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs), such as gonorrhea or chlamydia, could be the source of pelvic pain. STIs happen in sexually active people.

Along with painful urination, painful intercourse, and vaginal discharge alterations, STIs can also involve bleeding during or between periods, as well as increased urine.

To test for STIs, always see your doctor. He or she will likely give you antibiotics in addition to diagnosing and treating the infection. It is also crucial to share this information with sexual partners to prevent the infection from spreading.

4. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

A condition of the womb that can affect the nearby tissue is called pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). PID is more likely to occur if bacteria from the vagina or cervix make their way into the uterus and establish a colony.

A lot of the time, the condition is the result of an STI, such as gonorrhea or chlamydia. Abnormal vaginal discharge and bleeding are also possible along with pelvic pain. Antibiotics are primarily used to treat bacterial infections. Early therapy is imperative, however, because scarring cannot be treated.

5. Endometriosis

When endometrial, or uterine tissue, grows outside of the uterus, this is called endometriosis.

Some women with endometriosis report chronic, long-term pelvic pain. This pelvic tissue will react to hormonal changes, resulting in menstruation, and could result in pelvic pain and inflammation.

For others, minor to severe pain may occur. In some cases, endometriosis interferes with fertility. Medical professionals will provide treatment options, varying based on the severity of the patient’s symptoms.

6. Appendicitis

The appendix is a tiny organ located in the lower right abdomen, which can become inflamed. This is a common ailment, although it can be severe if infected.

Appendicitis may cause a strong pain in the lower-right part of the abdomen, accompanied by other symptoms such as vomiting and fever.

7. Uterine Fibroids

Fibroids are uterine tumors made up of muscle and fibrous tissue. These growths can be painful, although they are noncancerous and do not usually cause symptoms. They can cause pain in the pelvic or lower back, as well as pain during intercourse.

Excessive bleeding or cramping during menstruation can also be caused by fibroids. Some fibroids don’t need to be treated. If a woman’s symptoms are difficult to control, doctors may suggest a variety of therapies, such as drugs, noninvasive procedures, or surgery.

8. Urinary Stones

Urinary tract stones are composed of salts and minerals, such as calcium, that the body has difficulty excreting in the urine. These minerals can accumulate and form crystals in the bladder or kidneys, causing frequent pelvic or lower back pain. Additionally, stones can alter the color of the urine, frequently making it pink or reddish with blood.

While some stones are harmless, passing them might be painful. In other situations, a doctor may prescribe medication to dissolve stones or surgery to remove them.

9. Pelvic Adhesions

Adhesions are scar tissue that forms inside the body and links two tissues that are not supposed to be joined. This may cause discomfort as the body attempts to adapt to the adhesion.

Scar tissue may develop as a result of an old infection, endometriosis, or other conditions in the area. Pelvic adhesions can cause chronic pelvic pain in some women and may cause additional symptoms, depending on the location of the scar tissue.

A doctor may propose various minimally invasive procedures to assist in the reduction of adhesions and the alleviation of discomfort.

10. Tumor

In rare situations, pelvic pain may be caused by a malignant tumor in the reproductive system, urinary tract, or gastrointestinal system. Additionally, depending on the location of the tumor, it may produce additional symptoms.

To diagnose a tumor, doctors will need to conduct a complete evaluation, frequently involving blood and imaging tests. After confirming the diagnosis, they will make therapy recommendations.

When To See The Doctor

Any new, significant pain should be assessed. A person who feels an infection is causing their pelvic pain, for example, should see a doctor. While some infections will go away on their own, the danger of consequences is generally not worth the wait. Anyone experiencing unusual vaginal bleeding or significant pain should see a doctor right away.

If a person has a known illness and suffers rapid changes in pain, such as acute twists or extreme pain, they should seek medical help immediately, since this could indicate a dangerous shift in the condition.

Other symptoms that arise alongside pelvic pain, such as fever, nausea, and vomiting, should be taken seriously and should be addressed by a physician. They will conduct a comprehensive examination and assist in the development of an appropriate treatment plan.



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