Allopurinol is an FDA-approved medication used to reduce uric acid production in the blood. It is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor used to treat gout and manage kidney stones.
Generic name: allopurinol
Brand name: Aloprim, Zyloprim, Lopurin
Dosage forms: intravenous powder for injection (500 mg); oral tablet (100 mg; 300 mg)
Uses of Allopurinol
It is used to:
- treat gout
- manage recurrent kidney stones
- reduce levels of uric acid during the treatment of certain cancers
How To Take Allopurinol
Follow your doctor’s instructions when taking allopurinol. Read all drug guides or instruction sheets and follow all guidelines on your prescription label. Your doctor may adjust your dose from time to time.
With a full glass of water, take allopurinol oral. Unless your doctor instructs you otherwise, drink 8 to 10 full glasses of fluid every day to lower your chance of kidney stones forming.
Take allopurinol oral after a meal if this medicine affects your stomach. If you are unable to take the medicine by mouth, allopurinol injection is delivered as an infusion into a vein. Your initial dose will be given by a healthcare provider, who may also instruct you how to use the drug appropriately on your own.
You may need to mix the injection with a liquid (diluent) in an IV bag. If you’re using injections on your own, make sure you know how to prepare and store the medicine appropriately. If you don’t understand something, go to your doctor or pharmacist.
Only prepare an injection when you’re ready to administer it. If the medicine has changed colors or has particles in it, do not use it. For new medication, contact your pharmacist.
Medical testing may be required on a regular basis. Even if you don’t have any symptoms, testing can help your doctor figure out if allopurinol is working for you.
When you initially start taking this prescription orally, you may experience more gout attacks. Other gout medications may be prescribed in addition to allopurinol by your doctor. Continue to take the medication as instructed.
It could take 2 to 6 weeks before you notice a reduction in gout attacks. If your symptoms do not improve after 6 weeks, see your doctor.
To avoid kidney stones, you may need to follow a particular diet. Follow your doctor’s or dietitian’s directions to the letter. Learn which meals to eat and which to avoid.
Store away from moisture and heat at room temperature.
The following side effects can be associated with taking Allopurinol. They include mild and severe side effects.
Consult your doctor or pharmacist for further information on Allopurinol’s potential adverse effects. They can provide you with advice on how to deal with any unpleasant side effects.
Mild side effects include:
- abdominal pain
- nausea and vomiting
- loss of taste or changes in taste
- skin bruising
- acute gout
- numbness of hands or feet
- muscle pain
- joint pain
Severe side effects include:
- Necrotizing vasculitis
- Skin rash
- Liver damage
- Allergic reaction
Severe side effects are uncommon, but they can happen. If you experience any major side effects, contact your doctor at once. If your symptoms are life-threatening or you believe you’re having a medical emergency, dial 911 or your local emergency number.
Allopurinol can cause a decrease in the number of blood cells that assist your body fight infections. This can make it easier for you to bleed after an injury or catch a cold from being around sick people. It’s possible that your blood will need to be tested frequently. You should see your doctor on a regular basis.
If you’ve ever had a severe allergic response to allopurinol, you shouldn’t use this medication. If you have any signs of skin rash (no matter how small), painful urination, blood in your urine, burning in your eyes, or swelling in your face or throat, stop taking the medicine and notify your doctor right away.
Avoid consuming alcoholic beverages. It may aggravate your issue. Allopurinol has the potential to affect your thinking and reactions. If you drive or do anything else that requires you to be aware, be cautious.